Black Powder Muzzleloading Ballistics

tsafa@aol.com

Testing was done under field conditions, not lab conditions. Powder measures may be off by a full grain either way. The average velocities indicated below had spreads (deviations from the mean) that where as large as 100 ft/s. I have observed such variance with Black Powder, Black Powder Substitutes and Modern Smokeless Powder. The burning of powder is a chemical reaction. Chemical reactions in general are never 100%, even under lab conditions.  The muzzle was about 7 feet back from the chronograph to avoid interference from the muzzle-blast in the readings.

The powder loads below do not necessarily represent safe loads. There is historic evidence that 19th century revolver were often loaded to maximum capacity and they did sometimes explode as a result. This is mostly attributed to inconsistent metallurgy at the time. Refer to the manufacture's instructions for safe loads. Any loads beyond the manufacture's instructions is at your own risk.

The formula I am using to calculate energy is: 
Velocity x Velocity x Mass / 450240 = Energy in ft-lbs

The formum I am using to calculate momentum is: 
Velocity x Mass / 7000 = Momentum in ft-s

I have endeavored to understand what these computations mean in and of themselves. An energy of 300 ft-lbs should be the amount of energy needed to move a 300 lb weight vertically one foot in the air against gravity. This is not the case because a lot of that energy is lost due to inefficiencies, so the number by itself is meaningless. These calculations do provide us with a means of comparing one caliber to another under different load conditions with some constancy. After having consulted experts in physics, I have been told that if you are interested in the amount of damage the bullet does to the target pay more attention to the Energy. If you are interested in how much the target is moved or penetrated by a bullet, pay more attention to the momentum. I visualize it as the difference between whipping something (Energy ) and punching something (momentum).

My first goal was to compare my Remington .36 cal to my Remington .44 and see how the bullet weight vs velocity variations work out. The .36 had a 6.5 inch barrel while the .44 had a 5.5 inch barrel. Each group listed below is an average of 6 shots.

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
.36 Remington, 1858 6.5 inch 28 grains 3F Pyrodex 80 grains, .375 ball 1015 ft/s 183 ft-lbs 11.60 ft-s
.36 Remington, 1858 6.5 inch 32 grains 3F Pyrodex 80 grains, .375 ball 1200 ft/s 255 ft-lbs 13.71 ft-s
.36 Remington, 1858 6.5 inch 35 grains 3F Pyrodex 80 grains, .375 ball 1250 ft/s 277 ft-lbs 14.28 ft-s
.36 Remington, 1858 6.5 inch 25 grains 3F Pyrodex 160 grains, Conical 816 ft/s 236 ft-lbs 18.65 ft-s
.36 Remington, 1858 6.5 inch 32 grains 3F Pyrodex 130 grains, Conical 976 ft/s 275 ft-lbs 18.12 ft-s
.36 Remington, 1858 6.5 inch 25 grains 3F GOEX Black Powder 130 grains, Conical 811 ft/s 190 ft-lbs 15.06 ft-s
.36 Remington, 1858 6.5 inch 30 grains 3F GOEX Black Powder 80 grains, .375 ball 987 ft/s 173 ft-lbs 11.28 ft-s
.36 Remington, 1858 6.5 inch 23grains 3F GOEX Black Powder 160 grains, Conical 725 ft/s 186 ft-lbs 16.57 ft-s

35 grains of 3F Pyrodex filled the chambers all the way to the top.When then the 80 grain ball was seated it significantly compressed the Pyrodex powder. It is important to note that Black Powder does not compress like Pyrodex. You can only fit 30 grains of GOEX Black Powder into the chamber with an 80 grain ball. The compressibility of Pyrodex offers a significant advantage in revolvers. The maximum load capacity is 25 grains of GOEX Black Powder when using a 130 grain conical. The maximum load is 23 grains GOED Black Powder with a 160 grain conical.

 

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 28 grains 3F Pyrodex 138 grain, .451 ball 593 ft/s 108 ft-lbs 11.69 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 32 grains 3F Pyrodex 138 grain, .451 ball 700 ft/s 150 ft-lbs 13.80 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 32 grains 3F Pyrodex 140 grain, .454 ball 850 ft/s 224 ft-lbs 17.00 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 35 grains 3F Pyrodex 138 grain, .451 ball 875 ft/s 234 ft-lbs 17.25 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 35 grains 3F Pyrodex 140 grain, .454 ball 945 ft/s 277 ft-lbs 18.90 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 35 grains 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 960 ft/s 292 ft-lbs 19.61 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 37 grains 3F Pyrodex 138 grain, .451 ball 950 ft/s 276 ft-lbs 18.72 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 37 grains 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 960 ft/s 292 ft-lbs 19.61 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 42 grains 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 1019 ft/s 329 ft-lbs 20.81 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 46 grains 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 1050 ft/s 350 ft-lbs 21.45 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 37 grains 3F GEOX Black Powder 140 grain, .454 ball 898 ft/s 250 ft-lbs 17.96 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 40 grains 3F GEOX Black Powder 140 grain, .454 ball 949 ft/s 280 ft-lbs 18.98 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 5.5 inch 42 grains 3F GEOX Black Powder 140 grain, .454 ball 964 ft/s 289 ft-lbs 19.28 ft-s

Two things seem clear when comparing the .44 to the .36 Remington. First, big .44 chambers like to be filled with powder, otherwise there is little benefit over a .36. If you want to save on powder... just get a .36. The use of wads with 28 grains of powder did not change the velocity significantly. The second lesson learned was that it is very important to have a very tight seal. I had been using .451 balls which I was able to seat with less effort. The testing shows a significant energy change between .451 and .454. Some Revolvers, have slight differently sized chambers and a .451 may be tight enough. The important thing is that you have a tight seal that allows the pressure to build up behind the ball before it starts to move. The tight seal will be evidenced by a ring of lead being shaved off when you seat the ball and significant resistance when seating. 

 

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
.44 Walker, 1847 9 inch 50 grains 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 1040 ft/s 343 ft-lbs 21.24 ft-s
.44 Walker, 1847 9 inch 60 grains 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 1117 ft/s 396 ft-lbs 22.81 ft-s
.44 Walker, 1847 9 inch 66 grains 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 1238 ft/s 486 ft-lbs 25.29 ft-s

In testing the 1847 Walker, it is significant to note that the .457 ball was not oversized and did not shave off a ring when seated for a very tight fit. My overall testing has shown that a tight fit is a very significant factor that greatly increases velocity. A .460 ball would probably give a significant increase in velocity for the Walker. Unfortunalty .460 ball is not commercially available.

.44 Walker, 1847 9 inch 60 grains 3F Pyrodex 215 gr, .452 Conical 971 ft/s 450 ft-lbs 29.82 ft-s
.44 Walker, 1847 9 inch 60 grains 3F Pyrodex 210 gr, .458 Conical 1014 ft/s 479 ft-lbs 30.42 ft-s

I used a Lee Mold to cast .456 bullets. The .456 mold is marketed for the Ruger and the .450 mold is marketed for the Remington, however the .450 mold is entirely too small to create the tight fit I was looking for. The .456 mold actually casts a .452 bullet as I measured it. I was able to seat the .452 bullet with little effort and no shaving into the Walker. The .458 bullet was created from a .452 with a little creative hammering on my part. Lead is soft and easy to reshape. The wider .458 took significant effort to seat and shaved off a nice ring, reducing its weight by about 5 grains.

It is interesting to note that my walker has started to show mild stretching in the metal behind the pin that holds the two halves together. This has resulted in slightly increased barrel/cylinder gap. The gap is still thinner then a razor.

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
Colt 1851, .44 8 inch 28 grain 3F Pyrodex 138 grain, .451 ball 608 ft/s 113 ft-lbs 11.98 ft-s
Colt 1851, .44 8 inch 35 grain 3F Pyrodex 138 grain, .451 ball 861 ft/s 227 ft-lbs 16.97 ft-s
Colt 1851, .44 8 inch 35 grain 3F Pyrodex 140 grain, .454 ball 930 ft/s 269 ft-lbs 18.60 ft-s
Colt 1851, .44 8 inch 35 grain 3F Pyrodex 190 grain conical 683 ft/s 248 ft-lbs 18.53 ft-s
Colt 1851, .44 8 inch 35 grain 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 786 ft/s 242 ft-lbs 17.77 ft-s
Colt 1851, .44 8 inch 35 grain 3F GEOX Black Powder 140 grain, .454 ball 860 ft/s 229 ft-lbs 17.20 ft-s
Colt 1851, .44 8 inch 37 grain 3F GEOX Black Powder 140 grain, .454 ball 862 ft/s 231 ft-lbs 17.29 ft-s
Colt 1851, .44 8 inch 40 grain 3F GEOX Black Powder 140 grain, .454 ball 930 ft/s 268 ft-lbs 18.44 ft-s
Colt 1851, .44 8 inch 24 grain 3F Triple Seven 140 grain, .454 ball 848 ft/s 224 ft-lbs 16.96 ft-s

Colt 1851, .44

8 inch 30 grain 3F Triple Seven 140 grain, .454 ball 1020 ft/s 324 ft-lbs 20.40 ft-s

The 1851 Colt .44 is a bit lighter then the 1858 Remington .44 (both 8 inch barrels) due to its half-frame design. The lightness of the Colt makes it a bit more comfortable to wear at the hip and to hold in the hand. The chambers of the Remington are slightly larger and allow for more powder, thus higher muzzle energy and momentum. The Remington also has a more solid full frame better suited to high power loads. I did not feel comfortable testing the Colt beyond 35 grains with Pyrodex. The compressibility of Pyrodex would allow me to load the gun beyond its Black Powder limit. I have have found Triple Seven to be about 25% more powerful then Black Powder. I do not recommend going past 250 ft-lbs of energy with the 1851 Colt because you will start to see stress marks behind the wedge that holds the two half's of the gun together.

 

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
.31 Pocket, 1858 3.5 inch 15 grains 3F Pyrodex 47.5 grain, .315 ball 433 ft/s 36 ft-lbs 2.93 ft-s
.31 Pocket, 1858 3.5 inch 15 grains 3F Pyrodex 52 grain, .323 ball 770 ft/s 68 ft-lbs 5.72 ft-s
.31 Pocket, 1858 3.5 inch 10 grains 3F Triple 7 49 gr, zero buck .32 484 ft/s 25 ft-lbs 3.38 ft-s
.31 Pocket, 1858 3.5 inch 15 grains 3F Triple 7 49 gr, zero buck .32 811 ft/s 73 ft-lbs 5.67 ft-s

The testing of the .31 pocket pistol emphasizes the importance of a tight fit. The .315 ball is seated very easily with almost no effort (no shaving). The .323 ball on the other hand takes great effort and is infact quite painful on the hand as the short lever of the pocket pistol provides very little leverage. The .323 ball shaved off a nice ring and paid back with a significant increase in velocity for the added effort. Using Zero Buck which is .32 cal is a very good and cheap option.

After extensive testing with the .31 Remington it is my conclusion that the gun should always be loaded with a full load of 15 grains of Triple Seven in order to achieve the defensive capability that the gun was intended to serve. 15 grains will fill the chamber nearly to the top and then the powder will be compressed when the ball is seated. The uncompressed load of 10 grains will yield only half the energy. The .31 Remington shoots extremely high because the front sight is too short. I had an extended front sight welded onto the barrel and then I filed the sight down to zero in. The gun is now very accurate with 30 feet.

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 60 grains 2F GOEX Black Powder 178 grain, .490 ball 607 ft/s 145 ft-lbs 15.43 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 80 grains 2F GOEX Black Powder 178 grain, .490 ball 1318 ft/s 686 ft-lbs 33.51 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 90 grains 2F GOEX Black Powder 178 grain, .490 ball 1427 ft/s 805 ft-lbs 36.28 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 100 grains 2F GOEX Black Powder 178 grain, .490 ball 1460 ft/s 842 ft-lbs 37.12 ft-s

 

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 80 grains 2F 315 grain, .490 conical 1186 ft/s 984 ft-lbs 53.37 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 80 grains 2F 485 grain, .490 conical 986 ft/s 1047 ft-lbs 68.31 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 100 grains 2F 315 grain, .490 conical 1307 ft/s 1195 ft-lbs 58.81 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 100 grains 2F 485 grain, .490 conical 1089 ft/s 1277 ft-lbs 75.45 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 120 grains 2F 315 grain, .490 conical 1345 ft/s 1265 ft-lbs 60.52 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 120 grains 2F 485 grain, .490 conical 1234 ft/s 1640 ft-lbs 85.49 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 140 grains 2F 315 grain, .490 conical 1471 ft/s 1514 ft-lbs 66.19 ft-s
Thompson Flintlock 28 inch 140 grains 2F 485 grain, .490 conical 1345 ft/s 1948 ft-lbs 93.18 ft-s

After studying the results of the 315 grain and the 485 grain bullets in the 50 caliber Flintlock it needs to be said that... SIZE DOES MATTER.

The powder used to test the 315 and 485 grain bullets was a mix of 50% 2F GOEX BP and 50% Pyrodex RS. The reason for this mix is because I did not have enough GOEX available on the day of the testing. I wanted to include as much real BP as I could because BP ignitions are more reliable with Flintlocks. I did not have a single misfire.

It is also interesting to note that I was shooting the lead bullets of 315 and 485 grains into a tree-stump that was about 6 inches in thickness. No exit, but the 50 lb stump was jolted pretty good. The soft lead did a good job of expanding inside the stump and transferring the energy to the stump. The lead I recovered from inside the stump had completely deformed into an unrecognizable mass of lead. Lead used in Muzzle-loaders is 99% pure lead and much softer then the lead used in modern firearms. The soft lead bullets recovered from the tree stump were unrecognizable as bullets. It looked more like a chewed up piece of gum. This illustrated well the reason why American Civil War injuries were so horrific.

 

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
Jukar Caplock 34 inch 60 grain GOEX BP 128 grain .440 ball 920 ft/s 240 ft-lbs 16.82 ft-s
Jukar Caplock 34 inch 90 grain GOEX BP 128 grain .440 ball 1676 ft/s 798 ft-lbs 30.64 ft-s
Jukar Caplock 34 inch 90 grain 2F Pyrodex RS 128 grain .440 ball 1709 ft/s 830 ft-lbs 31.25 ft-s

It is interesting to compare the rifles loaded with 60 grains to the Walker revolver loaded with 60 grains. The Walker is twice as powerful at the same load. I attribute this to the tighter seal in the revolver. The rifles were loaded with a slightly undersized ball wrapped in a patch. The purpose of the patch is to create a seal, but as the test shows, the patch method still allows a lot of gas to escape around the ball while it is in the muzzle.

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 28 grain 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 876 ft/s 238 ft-lbs 17.83 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 28 grain 3F Pyrodex 215 grain conical 820 ft/s 321 ft-lbs 25.18 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 35 grain 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 940 ft/s 280 ft-lbs 19.20 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 35 grain 3F Pyrodex 215 grain conical 870 ft/s 361 ft-lbs 26.72 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 40 grain 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 1052 ft/s 351 ft-lbs 21.49 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 40 grain 3F Pyrodex 215 grain conical 893 ft/s 380 ft-lbs 27.42 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 45 grain 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 1081 ft/s 371 ft-lbs 22.08 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 45 grain 3F Pyrodex 190 grain conical 1023 ft/s 441 ft-lbs 27.76 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 50 grain 3F Pyrodex 143 grain, .457 ball 1207 ft/s 462 ft-lbs 24.65 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 30 grain Triple Seven 140 grain, .454 ball 1070 ft/s 356 ft-lbs 21.40 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 35 grain Triple Seven 140 grain, .454 ball 1174 ft/s 428 ft-lbs 23.48 ft-s
.44 Remington, 1858 8 inch 40 grain Triple Seven 140 grain, .454 ball 1229 ft/s 470 ft-lbs 24.58 ft-s

The 215 grain conical is too long to easily fit into the 1858 Remington. The solution is to tap the flat end with an hammer over an anvil to reshape it just enough to be able to get 1/8 of the bullet easily seated by hand. It takes a little bit more effort but the results are well worth the effort.

If I could only own one handgun... it would be the 1858 Remington with the 8 inch barrel. Loaded with a light 28 grain load and a round ball, it rivals a modern .38 special. Loaded with 35 to 40 grains it rivals the modern 9mm and .45 ACP. Loaded with 45 and 50 grains it starts to approach the power of a light-end .357. At full charges it falls short of the Walker by a slim margin... but at 30% less weight at your hip.

Comparison of Black Powder to Pyrodex

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Avg Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
.44 Rem Stainless, 1858 8 inch 35 grain 3F Goex Black Powder 190 grain conical 848 ft/s 303 ft-lbs 23.01 ft-s
.44 Rem Stainless, 1858 8 inch 37 grain 3F Goex Black Powder 140 grain .454 ball 1014 ft/s 319 ft-lbs 20.28 ft-s
.44 Rem Stainless, 1858 8 inch 35 grain 3F Pyrodex 190 grain conical 819 ft/s 283 ft-lbs 22.23 ft-s
.44 Rem Stainless, 1858 8 inch 40 grain 3F Pyrodex 190 grain conical 897 ft/s 339 ft-lbs 24.34 ft-s
.44 Rem Stainless, 1858 8 inch 45 grain 3F Pyrodex 190 grain conical 1013 ft/s 433 ft-lbs 27.49 ft-s
.44 Rem Stainless, 1858 8 inch 50 grain 3F Pyrodex 140 grain .454 ball 1124 ft/s 392 ft-lbs 22.48 ft-s

This testing shows that at 35 grains that Black Powder was slightly more powerful then the Pyrodex. However... 35 grain is the maximum amount of Back Powder that can be stuffed into the chambers of the 1858 Remington. Pyrodex on the other hand is more compressible and can be filled up to 45 grains with a conical bullet or 50 grains with ball. At 50 grains the chamber will be filled to the top. The pyrodex will compress enough to allow the seating of the ball. My conclusion is that Black Powder and Pyrodex are about the same in power in equal volume, but the compressibility of Pyrodex allows for more powder to be put into a limited space.

Pirate Pistol

Gun Barrel Powder by Volume Bullet Weight Average Velocity Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
.50 Cal Traditions Flintlock Pirate Pistol Stainless Steel 10 inch 50 grain 2F GEOX Black Powder 173 grain, .490 ball 464 ft/s 83 ft-lbs 11.46 ft-s
.50 Cal Traditions Flintlock Pirate Pistol Stainless Steel 10 inch 50 grain 2F GEOX Black Powder 316 grain conical 497 ft/s 173 ft-lbs 22.43 ft-s
.50 Cal Traditions Flintlock Pirate Pistol Stainless Steel 10 inch 70 grain 3F GEOX Black Powder 316 grain conical 965 ft/s 653 ft-lbs 43.56 ft-s

Repeated tests with the Pirate Pistol favored the conical over the round ball with a greater velocity. You would expect the lighter ball to have a greater velocity but this was not the case. The conical provided more surface area which was harder to seat and consequently allowed more pressure to build up behind it, resulting in higher pressure and velocity. The pistol has a rifled barrel. No patch was necessary or possible due to the tight fit. The fowling in the barrel provided maximum tightness.

 

Black Powder Muzzleloading Training

I teach muzzle loading in the Pocono Mountains of Pennsylvania. The class site is approximately two hours from NYC or Philadelphia. The cost of the training is $200 for a two hour class. The class covers all aspects of safety, loading, shooting and cleaning Black Powder Firearms. You do not need to own a Black Powder Firearm or have any shooting experience to take this class. Please contact me at Tsafa@aol.com or (347) 685-2476 to schedule a class.

www.poconoshooting.com

tsafa@aol.com

 

For comparison, here is a list of some bows and modern firearms that I have tested.

Bow Draw Weight Arrow Weight Average Speed Calculate Energy Calculated Momentum
Fiberglass Recurve 25 lbs 388 gr 86 ft/s 6 ft-lbs 4.76 ft-s
Wood Longbow 60 lbs 402 gr 120 ft/s 13 ft-lbs 6.89 ft-s
Wood Longbow 60 lbs 535 gr 104 ft/s 13 ft-lbs 7.94 ft-s

It is interesting compare a wooden longbow of hunting power to the .22 LR. The .22 LR has more Energy, but the heavier arrows have more momentum.

 

.22 Factory Ammunition

Gun Ammunition Bullet Avg Speed Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
Pheonix Pistol 3" Remington Gold 36 gr JHP 750 ft/s 45 ft-lbs 3.85 ft-s
Rifle Remington Gold 36 gr JHP 1100 ft/s 96 ft-lbs 5.65 ft-s
Pheonix Pistol 3" Federal 36 gr JHP 900 ft/s 64 ft-lbs 4.62 ft-s
Rifle Federal 36 gr JHP 1200 ft/s 115 ft-lbs 6.17 ft-s
Pheonix Pistol 3" Winchester (red box) 36 gr JHP 905 ft/s 65 ft-lbs 4.65 ft-s
Rifle Winchester (red box) 36 gr JHP 1212 ft/s 117 ft-lbs 6.23 ft-s

.22 Magnum Factory Ammunition

Gun Ammunition Bullet Avg Speed Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
NAA Mini CCI Maxi-Mag 40 gr JHP 950 ft/s 80 ft-lbs 5.42 ft-s
NAA Mini Winchster Dynapoint 45 gr JHP 820 ft/s 67 ft-lbs 5.27 ft-s
Peacemaker 5.5" CCI Maxi-Mag 40 gr JHP 874 ft/s 68 ft-lbs 4.99 ft-s
Peacemaker 5.5" Winchster Dynapoint 45 gr JHP 891 ft/s 79 ft-lbs 5.72 ft-s

.380 Factory Ammunition

Gun Ammunition Bullet Avg Speed Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
Ruger LCP Tulammo 91 gr FMJ 882 ft/s 157 ft-lbs 11.46 ft-s
Ruger LCP Federal 95 gr FMJ 817 ft/s 140 ft-lbs 11.08 ft-s
Ruger LCP Remington 95 gr FMJ 901 ft/s 171 ft-lbs 12.22 ft-s

38 Special Factory Ammunition

Gun Ammunition Bullet Avg Speed Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
38 Taurus Snub 2" MFS 158 gr FMJ 750 ft/s 198 ft-lbs 16.93 ft-s
38 Taurus 5" MFS 158 gr FMJ 791 ft/s 219 ft-lbs 17.85 ft-s
38 Snub 2" Prvipatizan 158 gr FMJ 610 ft/s 131 ft-lbs 13.76 ft-s
38 Snub 2" Federal 158 gr Lead 664 ft/s 155 ft-lbs 14.98 ft-s
38 Snub 2" Remington 139 gr FMJ 748 ft/s 161 ft-lbs 13.98 ft-s
38 Snub 2" Winchester +P 125 gr HP 847 ft/s 199 ft-lbs 15.13 ft-s

38 Special Reloaded Ammunition

38 Taurus 5" 5.2 gr Unique 125 gr FMJ 738 ft/s 151 ft-lbs 13.17 ft-s
38 Snub 2" 5.2 gr Unique 125 gr FMJ 704 ft/s 137 ft-lbs 12. 57 ft-s
38 Taurus 5" 3.9 gr Clays 158 gr JFN 780 ft/s 214 ft-lbs 17.61 ft-s
38 Snub 2" 4.5 gr Unique +P 158 gr JFN 676 f/s 160 ft-lbs 15.28 ft-s
38 Taurus 5" 4.5 gr Unique +P 158 gr JFN 736 ft/s 190 ft-lbs 16.61 ft-s

9mm Factory Ammunition

Gun Ammunition Bullet Avg Speed Calculated Energy Calculated Momentum
Glock 19 Federal (brown box) 115 gr FMJ 1094 ft/s 305 ft-lbs 17.97 ft-s
Glock 19 RWS (orange black box) 124 gr FMJ 1078 ft/s 320 ft-lbs 19.09 ft-s
Glock 19 Winchester White Box 115 gr FMJ 1168 ft/s 348 ft-lbs 19.18 ft-s

9 mm Reloaded Ammunition

Glock 19 Red Dot 4.6 gr 124 gr JHP 1183 ft/s 385 ft-lbs 20.95 ft-s
Glock 19 Red Dot 4.5 gr 115 gr FMJ 1199 ft/s 367 ft-lbs 19.69 ft-s
Glock 19 Blue Dot 8.2 gr 124 gr JHP 1206 ft/s 400 ft-lbs 21.36 ft-s
Glock 19 Unique 5.5 gr 115 gr FMJ 1178 ft/s 354 ft-lbs 19.35 ft-s
Glock 19 Unique 5.5 gr 124 gr JHP 1250 ft/s 430 ft-lbs 22.14 ft-s

.357 Factory Ammunition

Taurus 5" Blazer (aluminum case) 158 gr JHP 790 ft/s 219 ft-lbs 17.83 ft-s
Taurus 5" Federal (brown box) 158 gr JSP 1040 ft/s 380 ft-lbs 23.47 ft-s
Taurus 5" Remington (white green box) 125 gr JSP 1340 ft/s 499 ft-lbs 23.92 ft-s

.357 Reloaded Ammunition

Taurus 5" Blue Dot 14.3 gr 125 gr FMJ 1475 ft/s 604 ft-lbs 26.33 ft-s

.45 ACP Factory Ammunition

Taurus 1911 Winchester (white box) 230 gr FMJ 780 ft/s 310 ft-lbs 25.62 ft-s
Taurus 1911 Federal (brown box) 230 gr FMJ 795 ft/s 322 ft-lbs 26.12 ft-s

.45 ACP Reloaded Ammunition

Taurus 1911 Unique 6 gr 230 gr HP 846 ft/s 366 ft-lbs 27.80 ft-s

.40 S&W Factory Ammunition

Sig Sauer Tul Ammo 180 gr FMJ 868 ft/s 301 ft-lbs 22.32 ft-s
Sig Sauer Winchester (white box) 165 gr FMJ 977 ft/s 350 ft-lbs 23.02 ft-s

.40 S&W Reloaded Ammunition

Sig Sauer Unique 6.7 grains 165 gr FMJ 1081 ft/s 428 ft-lbs 25.48 ft-s

.44 Magnum Factory Ammunition

Gun Ammunition Bullet Velocity Energy Momentum
Ruger Red Hawk Winchester 240 gr JHP 1392 ft/s 1032 ft-lbs 47.73 ft-s

.454 Casull Factory Ammunition

Raging Judge Magnum Butter Root Valley 300 gr JHP 1445 ft/s 1391 ft-lbs 61.93 ft-s

.500 S&W Magnum Factory Ammunition

500 S&W Butter Root Valley 350 gr JHP 1536 ft/s 1834 ft-lbs 76.80 ft-s

 

Gun Ammunition Bullet Speed Energy

Momemtum

S&W MP-15 Tul Ammo .223 62 gr FMJ 2684 ft/s 992 ft-lbs 23.77 ft-s
AK 47 Tul Ammo 7.62 x 39 122 gr FMJ 2216 ft/s 1331 ft-lbs 38.62 ft-s
Lever Action 30-30 Remington 30-30 150 gr JSP 2147 ft/s 1547 ft-lbs 46.18 ft-s
Veper .308 Reminton .308 150 gr JSP 2496 ft/s 2076 ft-lbs 53.49 ft-s

 

I teach Reloading of Modern Ammunition. Reloaded ammunition can be customized to produce better results in both power and accuracy.

Contact me at tsafa@aol.com to schedule training.

www.poconoshooting.com

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